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- Review of “Sergio” with Wagner Moura on Netflix
- Economist.com on Telenovelas
- Bolsonaro in covid?
- Looking for Brazilian technology start-ups
- Discussing Entrepreneurship, regulation and economic development at the Brazilianists congress in Paris
- The internationalisation of Vale in some slides
- The contradictions of Brazil’s foreign policy
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- Sub ratione Dei
“Amor de mãe” (“Mother’s Love”) is a telenovela about three mothers from different social classes whose lives become entwined in Rio de Janeiro. Its run began in November on Rede Globo, Brazil’s largest free television channel, in an evening slot that can attract a quarter of the population. Then, on March 16th, Globo shut its studios to combat the spread of covid-19, sending home some 9,000 workers and, for the first time ever, replacing ongoing soap operas with reruns. Neither military dictatorship nor the Rio Olympics halted production of Brazil’s famous novelas, which are broadcast six days a week for single seasons of around 150 episodes apiece.
Manuela Dias, the writer of “Amor de Mãe”, and José Luiz Villamarim, its director, scrambled to re-edit existing footage to suspend the story on a cliffhanger. One of the mothers, Thelma, commits a murder to prevent another, Lurdes, finding out that Thelma’s adopted child and Lurdes’s long-lost son are one and the same. That was the easy part. Now Globo, a huge media empire that broadcasts news, sports and entertainment, must answer the question facing television executives from Hollywood to Bollywood: how to bridge the gap between the pre- and post-pandemic worlds—and what to produce on the other side.
The filming of soap operas has been suspended in other countries, too, but nowhere will the hiatus matter more than in Brazil. Shoddy state-run schools and vast tv audiences mean that, as well as being a cherished form of entertainment, the shows are a vehicle for education and a mirror for current affairs. “Novelas helped me understand a part of history that literature in school didn’t show,” says Ondina Saidy, a 61-year-old social worker. For instance, a corruption scandal in the 1980s inspired “What King Am I?”, an allegory set in a European kingdom that poked fun at politicians. “Avenida Brasil”, one of the most successful soaps in Brazilian history, depicted life in a favela, sparking conversations about race and class when it began in 2012. Rates of organ donation rose after the practice saved a popular character’s life.
In short, says Maria Immacolata Vassallo de Lopes of the Centre for the Study of Telenovelas at the University of São Paulo, these shows are “a resource capable of mobilising people”. They are also part of a global market: millions of Americans and Europeans watch Brazilian and Mexican novelas, even if “K-Dramas” from South Korea have begun to supplant them. (Colombians, for their part, prefer Turkish yarns.) Now this supply chain has ground to a halt, leaving fans bereft when they most need the consolation of melodrama.
To sustain the ritual viewing in Britain, the bbc is eking out episodes already in the can of “EastEnders”, its flagship soap, scheduling two per week instead of four. In Mexico, Televisa has put scores of old telenovelas online to be streamed free. In Brazil, Globo is carefully selecting its reruns. They include a modern-day Cinderella tale and a historical drama with a sequel coming out later this year. Meanwhile, actors are connecting with fans on Facebook. Networks are exploring variety-show formats involving home-made videos—chefs in their own kitchens, quizzes in which celebrity panellists beam themselves in.
A rare holdout from the pre-covid era is “Big Brother Brazil” (bbb), a venerable reality show that confines 20 attractive young people in a house together. Globo decided to keep filming even as versions in Canada and Italy ended early. The network reduced staff to minimise the risk of infection and on March 16th broke into the contestants’ isolation to tell them about the pandemic; a similar scene played out on “Big Brother Germany”. The ensuing tear-filled episodes drove up the already high ratings (Rede Globo’s audience in March was its biggest in a decade: 38% of televisions in the country were tuned in). It is comforting to feel that “the whole world is here, at the same time, living through the same emotion”, says bbb’s director, J.B. Oliveira.
With novelas suspended, football cancelled and millions of Brazilians stuck at home, bbb has become a national pastime. Celebrities and politicians, including a son of President Jair Bolsonaro, have identified their favourite contestants on Twitter. A recent elimination round drew 1.5bn online votes. In a habit previously reserved for football matches, Brazilians have been shouting at the screen. “Stop that, for the love of God!” cries Bianca Cardoso, the founder of a Facebook group for tv fans, when participants engage in what in the covid era seems like risky behaviour, such as sharing dishes and embracing.
Soon, she may not have to worry. Globo is considering banning kissing when production of novelas resumes, at least initially. Crowd scenes will also be avoided to limit the need for extras. Smooching will surely return (though some quarantine habits, such as videoconferencing, will doubtless linger both in life and on screen). But the pandemic’s wider impact on television entertainment is unpredictable.
Soap and disinfectant
Experimenting with low-budget productions, as Globo has, could help in the long run, reckons Chico Barney, a Brazilian tv critic. Networks are anticipating a downturn after people return to work, audiences dip, advertising shrinks and subscriptions are cancelled. But there will still be demand for dramas, and—as is always true after such a seismic event—some are bound to focus on the pandemic. In Brazil, as elsewhere, the crisis has spotlighted the issue of inequality: wealthy travellers imported the virus, but poor people, who depend on the strained public health system, will suffer most. As in the past, soaps will reflect and shape viewers’ understanding of what happened and why.
Ms Dias, the writer of “Amor de Mãe”, has returned to her storyboard, pondering one urgent question in particular. The novela is set in present-day Rio, but the bustling streets and mobbed beaches that it depicts now seem like relics of a bygone age. “I agonised over what to do,” she says. “Do I let coronavirus into the novela, or do I spare my characters?”
Unlike the writers of “The Archers”, a British radio drama about a fictional village where the virus will arrive in May, Ms Dias decided to be merciful. The novela already grapples with death and inequality, she figures, and by the time it returns Brazilians will be sick of hearing about the disease. “The drama of whether or not Lurdes finds her son would turn into whether or not Lurdes gets coronavirus,” she jokes. “All the plot lines would become medical stories.”
Instead, an environmental activist who has a child with one of the mothers will warn the un that the world is unprepared for a pandemic. That is a lesson that the audience has already learned. ■
The economist covers president Bolsonaro. I am interested for feedback?
Editor’s note: The Economist is making some of its most important coverage of the covid-19 pandemic freely available to readers of The Economist Today, our daily newsletter. To receive it, register here. For our coronavirus tracker and more coverage, see our hub
One by one the doubters have made their peace with medical science. Only four rulers in the world continue to deny the threat to public health posed by covid-19. Two are flotsam from the former Soviet Union, the despots of Belarus and Turkmenistan. A third is Daniel Ortega, the tropical dictator of Nicaragua. The other is the elected president of a great, if battered, democracy. Jair Bolsonaro’s undermining of his own government’s efforts to contain the virus may mark the beginning of the end of his presidency.
Good news for Brazilian start-ups interested in expanding abroad with scalable solutions. In a partnership of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Apex-Brasil, 7 Brazilian startups will be selected to participate in some of the world’s major technology events in the cities of Dubai, Amsterdam, Madrid, Lisbon and the Viva Technology 2020, Europes largest technology trade show, to be held in Paris June 11-13.
The initiative is part of the Innovation Diplomacy Program, which seeks to raise Brazil’s profile with foreign innovation ecosystems and attract investments to support the internationalization of start-ups.
See the list of events with registrations scheduled for the first half of 2020 soon thereafter.
Interested startups may register at the Apex website until March 3rd.
Discussing Entrepreneurship, regulation and economic development at the Brazilianists congress in Paris
At the beginning of the 21st century, Brazil rises as one of the emerging countries with rapid economic development. This phenomenon coincides with the intensification of globalization and is not limited to purely economic aspects, but includes social and political implications.
This is the subject of a panel I am honoured to coordinate at the Brazilianist in Europe Congress. We propose to address complementary views of economic development, where multiple disciplines melt: law, management, regulation, finance as well as history and even religion.
Adriano Albuquerque (Lisbon University) will talk about Brazilian entrepreneurship in Portugal. Adriano will explain the socio-economic transformations translating challenges for entrepreneurs and workers.
The challenges of Brazil in an unstable international economic order is the subject of Luiz Carlos Delorme Prado (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro – UFRJ)
Spirituality and entrepreneurship: comparative study between Spain, Portugal and Brazil is the subject of Clara Margaça (University of Salamanca). And informal economy will be discussed in The “problem” of street commerce as business: reflections from the case of Belo Horizonte by Tarcísio Araújo Filho (Federal University of São Carlos – UFSCar)
I will address the economic development drivers in Brazil from the 1990s until 2018.
Where and When
The panel will take place at 105 Boulevard Raspail, Paris room 10 at 1 pm on Wednesday 18th September 2019. Attendance is free.
About the Brazilianists in Europe Congress
Europe has a strong tradition in scientific research somehow connected with Brazil. Fields are diverse: history, anthropology, sociology, linguistics, politics, economics, astronomy, biology, chemistry, architecture, among others. The Association of Brazilianists in Europe ABRE hosts a transdisciplinary forum for the exchange, dissemination and communication between students and professionals interested in Brazil. This year ABRE congress will take place in Paris, at the EHESS.
My recent presentation about the history of Vale is available online.
It is a summary of some points of my PhD dissertation about Vale and how it became a leading mining company. It was presented on January 31rst at the Economic History Seminar, Maison de la Recherche, Sorbonne University.
The dissertation summary:
The internationalisation of companies located in developing countries is a feature of contemporary globalization. Inverting the trend of capital flows, they represent what the Boston Consulting Group calls the global challengers: “a group of emerging challengers that are becoming important players in both developing and developed countries around the globe.”
This dissertation examines the case of one of these challengers: the Brazilian mining company Vale. In the beginning of 2000s, Vale was already a leader in the global production of iron ore, thanks to high quality and low cost reserves in Brazil. But its ability to face growing international competition was in question due to its local profile. After the acquisition of the Canadian giant Inco in 2006, Vale jumped from the sixth to the second position among global mining producers.
Such a drastic move elicits a number of questions. What reasons led this unknown emerging company to venture in an international environment? How successful was Vale in this endeavor? What are the effects of Vale’s internationalization on the Brazilian economy? Since its creation in 1942 as a state-controlled company, Vale had no choice but to turn to international markets. At the same time, as a fundamental part of the mining-steel sector, Vale plays a leading role in Brazil’s economic development.
After its privatization, the company defines the goal of becoming a global player with an aggressive plan for national and international acquisitions. Results are expressive. Vale succeds in expanding both its international presence and its product portfolio. The share of its workforce abroad rose from 1% in 2005 to 26% in 2010. Nevertheless, the becoming a global player ambition is not completely achieved. In 2010, Vale remains a company that suffers from Brazilian political interference and cost of doing business.
In this presentation I added a couple of slides to talk about the recent Brumadinho accident.
This piece from the economist caught my eye…
“The values Rio Branco espoused—peace, moderation, trust in international law, non-intervention and what would now be called the pursuit of soft power—became integral to Brazil’s idea of itself, Mr Ricupero argues. And Itamaraty, as the foreign ministry is known (from the palace in Rio de Janeiro it formerly occupied), came to be seen as the Rolls-Royce of Brazilian government, its prestige based on meritocracy and knowledge.”
Brazilian foreign policy is never more important than now, as the view of great powers like the United States is that we are again in a era of great power competition.